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PLA official confirmed Heavy Strategic Bomber H-20 to beat B-2B

Discussion in 'The Courtyard Café' started by condom_loong, Nov 7, 2017.

  1. syed putra

    syed putra Alfrescian Old Timer

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    China had the best defence 1000 years ago but barbarians with donkeys still manage to invade and rule the country time and time again.
     
  2. 我爸是李肛=Ass Loong

    我爸是李肛=Ass Loong Alfrescian Old Timer

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    This era OFFENSE is the ONLY Defense that Works!

    Nuke and eliminate all the rest ASAP, and once and for all you don't need any further defense.

    Absolutely right?!
     
  3. pakchewcheng

    pakchewcheng Alfrescian Old Timer

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    Ha ha ha ha!
    Before this thread started, so many people think ang moh dua dua kee.
    With many examples and very explicit details given here to make clear no more angmoh dua dua kee, but instead
    it is Chinese dua dua kee.

    You got nuthing better to say than some garbage words.

    Probably in those days, China got generals like the paper generals of Stinkapore so kenna whacked then.

    Also at one time, the sun never set on the British flag. So what! Now British cannot even fly their fucking St George flag in their own cuntry as the Muslims immigrants took objections to that.
    But Muslim can wear hijabs and burkas in England and rub the faces of English on to the fucking ground .

    Student union president sparks controversy by saying she would like to 'oppress white people', everyone should read the Koran and that men and women must not be friends
    I guess you feel shiok shiok shiok over above dont you? Allahu akbar!

    And even to English language demanding their fucking African ancestry poets who can just manage Pidgin Ingleesh got to be studied .

    A student who has demanded that Cambridge University 'decolonise' its English course had once claimed that white people who holidayed in Africa were 'selfish'.
    English Literature professors at the university are being asked to 'ensure the presence' of Black and Minority Ethnic writers (BME) in their courses.

    Back to China and USA.

    Somehow, Dotard Generals did manage to educate Dotard China is more than strong and US of A will be whacked if they try to shove instead of push.
    Which is why Dotard so polite to Xi Dada. last few days in Beijing.

    So anymore talk cock about
    Then take out China little by little. First thing first, the SCS... island chain around it. Enforce a no fly zone for ship and aeroplane.
    Plot the downfall of Yuan.

    What's the point of having a longer range that the US bombers when it is clear that the chinks' bombers will be shot down before they fly past Taiwan or Japan?


    :D:D:D

    Kong langjeow wei

    :D:D:D
     
  4. pakchewcheng

    pakchewcheng Alfrescian Old Timer

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    [​IMG]
    A possible PLA Rocket Force ballistic missile impact range in Westrn China shows mock military bases that could be compared to US military bases

    [​IMG]


    [​IMG]

    An area on the mock airfield shows an aircraft target in almost the same position as an aircraft on Kadena Air Base


    [​IMG]

    Possible test fuel tank targets appear to look similar to above-ground fuel tanks in Hachinohe, Japan


    [​IMG]


    A satellite image dating back to 2012, according to the War on the Rocks, shows craters in a test target

    [​IMG]

    Possible shelter or bunker targets resemble hardened aircraft shelters at the Misawa Air Base in Japan

    [​IMG]

    Possible mock moored ship targets resemble the US Arleigh Burke-class destroyer. Inset is a comparison of the ship and mock ship's sizes


    [​IMG]

    An area at the Rocket Force test range in western China resembles the layout of a US Naval base in Yokosuka, Japan

    Above shows the targetting accuracy of Chinese ballistic missiles sending their good news to the targets in Western China.

    Do note those photos dated to Aug 2013. The missiles using technology and satellite guidance in 2013 were already so fucking accurate.


    China's future satellite navigation will be millimeter-accurate


    The Beidou 3 will guide military munitions and drones.

    By Jeffrey Lin November 7, 2017



    [​IMG]
    BEIDOU LAUNCH

    The Beidou satellite is usually launched by LM-3 space launch vehicles.

    by78

    China's military is updating its satellite navigation system, launching tech that'll offer super accurate guidance for munitions and drones.

    On Sept. 29, China launched two Beidou 3 satellites from a Long March 3C rocket from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan province. Another two Beidou 3 satellites will launch before the end of 2017, part of a network of 20 Beidou 3 and 10 older Beidou 2 satellites set to go up by 2020.

    Civilian GPS receivers generally achieve higher accuracy by combining signals of several satellites, and indeed the completed Beidou Navigation Satellite System is expected to provide global coverage, with millimeter-level accuracy.

    [​IMG]
    BEIDOU 3

    Beidou 3 satellites will offer superior accuracy compared to current Chinese navigation satellites.

    Which meant China missiles can land good news on selected rivets on USA naval ships when docked in harbour of bases in Japan.


    So anymore talk cock about
    Then take out China little by little. First thing first, the SCS... island chain around it. Enforce a no fly zone for ship and aeroplane.
    Plot the downfall of Yuan.

    What's the point of having a longer range that the US bombers when it is clear that the chinks' bombers will be shot down before they fly past Taiwan or Japan?


    :D:D:D

    Kong langjeow wei

    :D:D:D
     
  5. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    I can surely tell you that 北斗 is actually OPTIONAL in Chinese ICBM already.

    China is leading the Laser Gyro with their own precision level exceeding West, that ICBM accuracy WITHOUT ANY SATELLITE is sufficiently accurate - circular error probable (CEP) error current within 30m from an ICBM range of 14000km, 北斗3 can further bring accuracy to within about 20cm, however for most purposes of NUKE, 100m is more than enough.

    I can point you to a Chinese civilian factory that will sell you a pocket sized laser gyro that will give you 100m accuracy for intercontinental range, I don't know their prices, but I am sure Pyongyang knows.


    Here is another, but English instead of Chinese language - factory is in China.

    These are not the PLA's much higher grade models which we know is several times better. CEP 30m

    http://www.360doc.com/content/16/0410/16/9003852_549487670.shtml

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    美国说中国导弹依赖卫星很脆弱?一个手掌大小设备公开后让其闭嘴
    2016-04-10 hyztsguan


    [​IMG]

    卫星制导对军事领域的渗透和决定性作用是如此巨大,以至于有人假设,如果是二战时期依靠目视和地图打仗的将军穿越来到现代,一定会被眼前闪烁着各种信息数据的电脑屏幕和手里的卫星导航终端弄的不知所措。诚然,如果是现代饱受高科技熏陶的军人回到二战,那么也肯定是无法适应的。如果两个国家都在第一时间消灭对方的卫星系统,难道飞机,导弹就要变成一堆废铁了吗?答案当然是否定的,现代导弹除了卫星制导之外,还有一套INS系统,也就是惯性导航系统,依靠精密的激光陀螺仪来测量偏航角度,修正弹道,确保导弹朝着正确的目标航向前进。

    [​IMG]在很长时间内,中国的高精度陀螺仪完全依靠前苏联和俄罗斯,假如我国在2015年没有研制出自己的完全自己掌握的激光陀螺仪,就不会有东风-26和东风-21D反舰弹道导弹的大量列装,一个长达43年的科研马拉松,美国人曾预言,中国导弹离开卫星就变成没头苍蝇一样四处乱撞,

    没有王屠夫,难道真的要吃带毛猪?当然不是,但是远程导弹对陀螺仪的要求十分严苛,制造和加工难度极高,从第一代机械陀螺仪就能看出一些端倪。

    [​IMG]

    图为美国MX洲际弹道导弹的陀螺仪惯性导航仪表舱,分别装有3个高精度陀螺和3个比力积分接收器。陀螺转子采用氢气轴承, 由于改进了热量及质量的平衡, 使陀螺的漂移率减小了一个数量级, 并采取了抗核加固措施。比力积分接收器是“ 民兵III” 导弹的摆式积分加速度表的改进型, 精度提高了一个数量级。

    [​IMG]

    图为MX洲际弹道导弹的制导系统中惯性测量装置的惯性基准球结构示意图

    实际上,惯性基准球就是一个精度极高的机械陀螺,安装在一个浮球平台上, 结构非常复杂, 总重约52千克。 球体本身由整块铍经400多道工序加工而成, 大小同篮球差不多。球体靠氟里昂液体悬浮在由两个半球形不锈钢薄壳内, 提供了“ 无振 恒温” 的理想环境,并能全姿态工作。

    [​IMG]

    图为MX导弹的机械惯性陀螺仪,整套造价及其昂贵

    由于此类高精度惯性导航设备造价高,加工难度太大,而且事关重大,几十年时间里一直都是机密中的机密。

    [​IMG]

    但是随着导弹技术的发展,尤其是我国在激光和微电子技术领域的突飞猛进,在借鉴前苏联和俄罗斯光纤陀螺仪的基础上,上世纪90年代,中国的各类中小型对空,对海导弹使用国产武器级光纤陀螺仪后,精度在100公里射程,圆概率误差100米缩小到30米以内。这才有了C-801等出口国外的拳头产品。

    [​IMG]图为激光陀螺仪的产品模型

    但是光纤陀螺仪的精度依然无法满足射程2000到12000公里中远程弹道导弹的需要,中国国防科技大学的科研人员从上世纪70年代接受研制任务之后,在毫无外部技术支持的情况下,经过43年的连续攻关终于研制出完全属于中国自己的洲际弹道导弹专用的激光陀螺仪。

    [​IMG]

    图为激光陀螺仪的封装状态,外壳采用钛合金制造,可耐受极高强度的震动。

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  6. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    As you can see Chinese high precision laser gyro is pocket sized and much more accurate, while Western versions are so GIANT HUGE and HEAVY and INACCURATE.
     
  7. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    http://bbs.9ifly.cn/thread-13181-1-1.html
    查看: 3393|回复: 5
    [​IMG] [​IMG] [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [电子信息技术] 我国高精度激光陀螺仪实现量产,精度优于欧洲产品
    [复制链接]


    [​IMG]
    电梯直达 [​IMG]
    1

    [​IMG] langge945 发表于 2014-2-4 15:26 | 只看该作者 [​IMG]
    对本站感兴趣的话,马上注册成为会员吧,我们将为你提供更专业的资讯和服务,欢迎您的加入!
    您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?注册会员 [​IMG]

    x 我国高精度激光陀螺仪实现量产,精度优于欧洲产品


    科技部网站消息,中国成都一家企业完成高精度激光陀螺仪相关的超精密光学元器件批量化生产项目建设,这意味着中国将可以开始批量生产超高精度环形激光陀螺仪(RLG)。此类设备目前主要用于军事领域,包括洲际导弹的惯性导航和航天、航空、海事领域。
    [​IMG]


    (资料图)西安一家企业生产的民用三轴激光陀螺仪

    科技部网站报道,成都贝瑞光电科技股份有限公司承担的《高精度激光陀螺超精密光学元器件组件产业化》成果转化项目,优化了高精度激光陀螺迫切需要的超精密光学元器件组件的工艺制造技术,形成了年产1200套的生产能力,跻身当今国际上能够研制生产表面粗糙度小于0.1nm的超精密光学元件仅有的四家企业之一。项目执行期间,共获得专利授权5项,获得四川省科技进步三等奖1项,实现销售收入4950万元,实现利税1896万元,新增就业50人。

    通过项目的实施,打破了国外企业对高精度激光陀螺超精密光学元器件的技术垄断,对促进我国航空航天、国防军工领域高精度激光陀螺重大关键技术的进步和产业发展,具有重要促进作用和特别重大的意义。


    [​IMG]
    美国MX洲际导弹上的高精度机械陀螺仪(AIRS)球体,球体用400多道工艺制造


    [​IMG]
    MX洲际导弹的惯性导航舱段,激光陀螺仪出现前,高精度惯性导航元件的体积和重量巨大,成本也高得惊人


    [​IMG]
    环形激光陀螺仪原理

    据悉,环形激光陀螺仪是从60年代开始研究的一项技术,其主要优点是精度高,同时价格比同等精度的机械式陀螺仪低廉。70年代后出现的光纤陀螺仪的成本比环形激光陀螺仪成本更低,但限于其设计原理,在追求高精度的使用领域仍不如前者。现代的微机电陀螺仪成本非常低廉,精度也可以满足一般领域的使用需求,而且可集成到微型芯片上,因此成为了当前民用领域的主流陀螺仪。

    但在军用领域,激光陀螺仪和光纤陀螺仪仍是主流产品,尤其在中远程导弹制导、航空、航海导航、航天等领域激光陀螺仪应用仍十分广泛。这主要是由于微机电陀螺仪的精度仍不能达到激光陀螺仪的水平,包括卫星制导炸弹、短程弹道导弹等武器可以使用微机电陀螺仪进行制导,但必须通过卫星定位进行修正,而远程武器上由于积累误差过大,就难以使用微机电陀螺仪了。尤其是在潜艇上,高精度激光陀螺仪意义很大,潜艇长期在水下活动,无法通过卫星定位来修正其惯性导航系统的积累误差,其惯性测量元件必须具备极高的精度才能满足使用要求。


    [​IMG]
    瑞士生产的高精度激光镜片,可用于陀螺仪

    美国80年代研制的MX(和平保卫者)导弹上搭载的机电陀螺仪是世界上精度最高的机械式陀螺仪,每小时仅偏离1.5*10-5度,使该导弹可以在完全不依赖外部信息的情况下在14000公里射程上偏差小于100米,然而这一设备成本也极为高昂。因此在研制潜射“三叉戟”弹道导弹时就改为使用环形激光陀螺仪,降低了成本,并大幅度缩减了导航设备的体积。


    [​IMG]
    2011年俄罗斯莫斯科航展上展示的新型环形激光陀螺仪

    目前在激光陀螺仪领域较为领先的国家有美国、俄罗斯、德国、法国和日本,其中美俄法都将激光陀螺仪用于制造本国的洲际导弹。中国参与欧洲“伽利略”导航时就曾向法德提供过环形激光陀螺仪部分技术。不过由于中国一直没能实现这一技术的产业化转化,因此只有在洲际导弹、航天发射等领域使用国产高精度激光陀螺仪。而在一般运用领域尚需购买俄罗斯的高精度光纤陀螺仪。俄罗斯的光纤陀螺仪技术较为先进,印度不久前发射的“烈火4”中远程导弹上也使用了俄罗斯的光纤陀螺仪,光纤陀螺仪的主要优势在于成本较低,同时出口门槛不高。相比之下,高精度环形激光陀螺仪仍属各国的重要机密,轻易不会出口。

    军用激光陀螺的发展取决于战争对武器自动化、机动性和准确性的要求。今后几年激光陀螺技术本身将主要向更高精度、更高可靠性的高要求方向和体积更小、价格更便宜、结构更牢靠的超小型战术应用发展。前一发展方向的目的在于为航天、航海(特别是潜艇)提供高精度的惯性元件。后一发展方向主要是为战术导弹、中近程火箭、火炮瞄准线稳定等提供更坚固、廉价的传感器。

    [​IMG]
    印度技术人员正在测试国产环形激光陀螺仪,据印度网站称这一设备用于“烈火5”洲际导弹,不过上周印度试射的“烈火4”导弹仍使用俄制光纤陀螺仪

    此次实现高精度激光陀螺仪光学组件批量生产的成都贝瑞光电科技股份有限公司于2010年3月18日在原有限公司的基础上整体改制成立。 注册基本为920万元,系国家高新技术企业。公司现有职工总人数122人,年产50万件精密光学元件。自2008年下半年以来公司着力开拓国内高端市场和承担相关重点研发项目,已取得重大突破。贝瑞以自有的先进的超光滑抛光技术为基础,在超精密激光元件、单兵作战系统、红外汽车夜视系统、硒化锌(ZnSe)精密光学元件研制等多个项目上已取得重大突破。

    http://www.guancha.cn/military-affairs/2014_01_24_201999.shtml

    洲际导弹, 项目建设, 成果转化, 有限公司
     
  8. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    Why Gyro is most important is this: Gyro can not be sabotaged, Satellites can be sabotaged too easily.

    Why did Dotard Trump's 59 cruise missiles mostly failed to reach Syrian airbase? Russian jam the US GPS!

    https://southfront.org/russian-defe...ahawk-missiles-reached-their-target-in-syria/

    Russian Defense Ministry: Only 23 Out Of 59 Tomahawk Missiles Reached Their Target In Syria

    [​IMG]
    The ash Shayrat military airfield © REUTERS/ DigitalGlobe/Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense/Handout

    Only 23 out of 59 Tomahawk missiles launched by the US Navy reached their target and hit the ash Shayrat military airfield near the Syrian city of Homs, the Russian Defense Ministry has claimed. The locations of the remaining 36 missiles’ impact is now unknown.

    According to the statement, the US missiles destroyed a training facility, a material storage depot, a canteen, six MiG-23 aircraft in repair hangars and a radar station. Meanwhile, the airbase’s runway, taxiways and aircraft on the parking apron remained undamaged. (Photos and videos from the area)

    Chief of the Directorate of Media service and Information of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Maj Gen Igor Konashenkov described the combat efficiency of the strike as “quite poor” and added that the US actions were “a gross violation” of the memorandum of understanding on flight safety in Syria between Russia and the United States. Moscow suspended the fligh memorandum with the United States earlier today.

    Meanwhile, the Syrian Defense Ministry said in a statement that 6 people were killed and a notable material damage delivered to the airbase as a result of the US missile strike.

    Alleged parts of a Tomahawk missile were found near Tartus in the province of Latakia:

    [​IMG] [​IMG] [​IMG]


    Tags:russia, russian military, syria, Syrian Civil War, Syrian War, usa
    SouthFront

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  9. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    https://www.marketwatch.com/story/t...eplace-the-tomahawks-used-in-syria-2017-04-07

    Here’s how much it costs to replace the 59 Tomahawk missiles Trump fired on Syria

    Published: Apr 15, 2017 10:40 a.m. ET







    Each Tomahawk missile, made by Raytheon, costs about $1 million


    [​IMG] Raytheon
    [​IMG]
    By


    ClaudiaAssis

    Reporter

    It could cost about $60 million to replace the cruise missiles that the U.S. military rained on Syrian targets Thursday night.

    Each Tomahawk missile, made by Raytheon Co. RTN, -0.07% likely cost $1 million, according to experts.

    The U.S. used 59 of them on a Syrian air base in response to the Syrian government’s chemical-weapons attack that killed scores of civilians earlier this week.

    Raytheon referred questions around costs to the U.S. Navy’s unmanned aviation and strike weapons program, which did not immediately return a request for comment.

    Read: Destructive and dangerous’ or ‘appropriate and just’ — the world reacts to Syria airstrikes

    The missiles used on Thursday likely cost the U.S. military around $1 million, but the latest versions of the missile that would replace those could be more costly, depending on size of the order and other factors, said Loren Thompson, a consultant and chief operating officer of nonprofit Lexington Institute.


    Demand for Tomahawks never seems to go down, said Tom Karako, a director at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Karako estimated a replacement cost for each Tomahawk of around $1 million.

    The Navy’s 2017 budget has the future missiles at a unit cost of $1.5 million, higher than previous years, but that is probably because the Navy is winding down the program and does not plan, at least for now, on buying more Tomahawks after this year, said Todd Harrison, also a director with CSIS.

    Tomahawks can be launched from a ship or a submarine. Yesterday’s Tomahawk missiles were launched from two U.S. Navy destroyers in the Mediterranean Sea, according to reports.

    Tomahawks have been part of the U.S. military’s arsenal for three decades, and were first used during the 1991 Gulf War. Newer iterations of the missile were last used in October to strike targets in Yemen after attacks on U.S. Navy ships.

    The value of the Tomahawk comes from their long range, their precision, and the fact that they don’t require putting a pilot in hostile airspace, said the Lexington Institute’s Thompson.

    See also: Here’s everyone who was in the room as Trump was briefed on Syria missile strike

    Related: After the attack on Syria, oil’s missing risk premium is coming back

    According to Raytheon’s website, the cruise missile has been employed in combat more than 2,000 times since it was introduced.

    Tomahawks can fly about 1,000 miles at subsonic speeds (around 550 miles an hour), and its latest version, the Tomahawk Block IV, can be pre-programmed as well as redirected to a new target in real time and during its flight. The Tomahawk is also the weapon of choice of the British military.

    Shares of Raytheon rallied in early Friday trading but their gains moderated as the session went on. The stock has gained more than 7% so far this year, compared with a 5% gain for the S&P 500 index SPX, -0.09%




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    Claudia Assis

    Claudia Assis is a San Francisco-based reporter for MarketWatch. Follow her on Twitter @ClaudiaAssisMW.
     
  10. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    How did Putin jammed US GPS to fuck all their Tomahawk cruise missiles (@US$1.1 million)?

    Here is one of the measure, there are many other ways:

    http://nationalinterest.org/blog/th...ell-phone-towers-cruise-missile-jammers-18067

    The Buzz
    Russia Plans to Turn Cell Phone Towers Into Cruise Missile Jammers
    [​IMG]
    Robert Beckhusen

    October 16, 2016

    TweetShareShare
    [​IMG]
    Here’s a nightmare scenario that keeps Russian generals up at night: American submarines and aircraft launching precision-guided cruise missiles by the hundreds. Within minutes, they slam into bases, communications nodes and the Kremlin’s own missile launchers.

    Implausible as it may seem, Russia is freaked out enough about this possibility — in the event of a major war — that it’s taking steps to militarize its civilian communications infrastructure.

    Specifically, the Russian military is buying up jamming devices which it plans to mount on cell phone towers. The idea behind it is simple — the Kremlin could switch on the jammers, known as Pole-21s, during a conflict and pray a U.S. missile blitzkrieg becomes a bit less accurate.

    “At the present time, the tests of the item have been completed and the system has been accepted into the inventory,” a Russian Defense Ministry spokesman told the Izvestiya newspaper.

    Izvestiya noted the system “is integrated with the transmission and reception antennas that are installed on cellular communications towers, which are merged into a single network, which covers entire regions like a dome that is impenetrable for satellite navigation signals.”

    Russia mounting jammers on cell towers is unusual, but the underlying military logic is reasonable. As it stands, the United States possesses a large disparity in cruise missiles, drones and guidance systems, such as GPS. Russia has its own satellite navigation system known as GLONASS.

    A word of caution — U.S. cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk contain electronics designed to specifically counteract GPS jamming devices. One device called the AGR allows “continued satellite track in the presence of high levels of hostile jamming,” manufacturer Raytheon notes.

    But the Kremlin is betting on disrupting a missile’s receiver just enough to stop a direct hit. “The transmission of an elementary signal from a satellite lies at the foundation of all satellite navigation systems,” Russian military analyst Anton Lavrov told Izvestiya. “Therefore, the slightest deviation from the designated frequency even for milliseconds will result in a loss of accuracy.”

    O.E. Watch, a monthly newsletter published by the U.S. Army’s Foreign Military Studies Office, noted that the devices appear to be part of a larger push by Russia to prepare itself for the possibility of major conflict.

    “These initiatives coincide with other efforts to prepare Russia for large-scale conventional warfare, such as massive ‘snap’ exercises, reformation of the reserve system, exercising wartime command and control relationships, and testing the nationalization of the industrial base in the event of a transition to a wartime footing,” O.E. Watch stated.

    There is, of course, a downside to mounting jammers on cell phone towers anywhere near populated areas. Were Russia to flip them on, it’d jam its own frequencies in a kind of electromagnetic friendly fire. So the machines would likely sit mute unless an international crisis were to occur.

    There’s one more caveat. The Russian military regularly makes pronouncements of technologies which do not pan out.

    Many of them, however, do. And an advantage of co-opting cell phone towers for military purposes is that the infrastructure — including some 250,000 cellular base stations in Russia — already exists.

    The Kremlin can simply add to it.

    This first appeared in WarIsBoring here.

    Image: Raytheon.

    TweetShareShare
     
  11. pakchewcheng

    pakchewcheng Alfrescian Old Timer

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    But I like accuracy to mm even more!
    Missile can land warhead to USA Admiral mouth on the lower left molar tooth to do a root canal job!
    That admiral will not have to suffer that toothach anymore!
     
  12. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    During Desert Strom by old Bush, Saddam had dozens of old version Russian GPS jammers, caused some Tomahawks to hit Kuwait and Iran instead of Iraq. USAF were forced to hunt down jammers. Only managed to destroyed 6 of them.

    Russian GPS jammer are so good Pentagon is actually BUYING from Russian!

    https://www.computerworld.com/artic...d-contracts-to-russian-gps-jammer-vendor.html

    U.S. Army awarded contracts to Russian GPS jammer vendor


    By Bob Brewin

    Computerworld | Mar 27, 2003 12:00 AM PT


    More like this


    The U.S. Army awarded $192,000 in contracts in 2002 to a Russian company identified in news reports as a supplier of Global Positioning System (GPS) jamming equipment to Iraq.

    Moscow-based Aviaconversiya Ltd. has denied selling the jamming equipment to Iraq, according to the news reports. Officials there couldn't be reached for comment this week, despite repeated attempts by Computerworld to do so.

    On Tuesday, President Bush personally complained to Russian Premier Vladimir Putin about the sale of Russian military equipment to Iraq, according to White House spokesman Ari Fleischer. In a press briefing that day, Fleischer said the White House was "concerned" about reports "of ongoing cooperation and support to Iraqi military forces being provided by a Russian company that produces GPS jamming equipment. ... We have credible evidence that Russian companies provided the assistance and the prohibited hardware to the Iraqi regime.

    "The President raised with President Putin our ongoing concerns about support [that] would be provided for Iraqi military forces by Russian companies that produced the equipment," he said. Putin promised to look into the issue, Fleischer said.

    Iraq evidently tried to use those jammers against U.S. forces after the U.S.-led coalition began strikes against Iraqi targets last week. "We have noticed some attempts by the Iraqis to use a GPS jamming system that they obtained from another nation. We have destroyed all six of those jammers in the last two nights' airstrikes. I'm pleased to say they had no effect on us," Air Force Maj. Gen. Victor Renuart, of the U.S. Central Command, said yesterday.

    Air Force Lt. Col. Ken McClellan, a Defense Department spokesman, acknowledged that the Army had let contracts to Aviaconversiya. The company is included on an online list of all Defense Department contracts worth more than $25,000 that were awarded in 2002 (download PDF from Defenselink). But he declined to provide any details.

    "Because of the sensitive nature of what constitutes exact military capabilities, or potential vulnerabilities, I doubt seriously whether you'll find anyone willing to go beyond the previously released information from Defenselink or Commerce Business Daily," McClellan said in an e-mail reply to questions about the contract.

    GPS experts said the Army most likely bought equipment from Aviaconversiya to test its capabilities, which in turn would help U.S. forces avoid jamming or attack jammers being used against them. But, James Hasik, a GPS consultant in Atlanta, said he doubts that the jammers would have much effect on GPS-equipped smart weapons used in Iraq such as the Tomahawk cruise missile or Joint Direct Attack Munitions, because they have backup guidance systems such as gyroscope-based inertial navigation systems.

    Richard Langley, a professor of geodesy at the University of New Brunswick in Canada, agreed and said the jammers would also have a hard time interfering with an encrypted military GPS code broadcast at a frequency of 1227.6 MHz. But the jammers could interfere with signals broadcast at 1575.42 MHz, a band used by commercial GPS receivers. Such receivers could have been bought by individual troops, but the Army tried to derail that practice in January. In the January 2003 "Pathfinder" newsletter (download PDF), the Army warned troops of the "severe risks" associated with the use of commercial GPS receivers on the battlefield. The newsletter is published by the Army's Program Manager GPS in Fort Monmouth, N.J.

    "Never use them for calling in your critical position information," the newsletter cautioned, urging the use of a crypto-protected Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) made by Rockwell Collins Inc. in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The newsletter said the PLGR is "your best protection against spoofing and jamming and the mission failure or death that could result from their effect on a commercial" receiver.

    Hasik said jamming of civilian signals could be detrimental if pilots of aging aircraft such as the Air Force A-10 or the Navy F-14 have bought handheld commercial receivers to make up for those planes' lack of built-in GPS. Jamming could interfere with critical navigation functions of the receivers, he said.

    GPS receivers are susceptible to jamming because of the weak nature of the signals as they travel to receivers on earth from 24 satellites in space, Hasik said.

    This week's warning about the sale of Russian GPS jammers to Iraq and the subsequent attack on them illustrate the Pentagon's concern about interference with one of the core technologies of its smart weapons systems. Earlier this year, McClellan said the Pentagon had a "somewhat serious concern about an online article in 'Phrack' that detailed how to build a homemade GPS jammer" (see story).


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    Last edited: Nov 11, 2017
  13. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    For purpose of nuke no need too accurate. Unless you are striking say underground missile silo. You need 1m CEP.

    Nuke a city you can miss by 1km still same result.
     
  14. pakchewcheng

    pakchewcheng Alfrescian Old Timer

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    Ah!!!

    But China know about that

    The Beidou 2/Compass navigation satellites will have 35 satellites once completed, with 5 in geosynchronous orbit, and 30 in middle earth orbit.

    China Academy of Space Technology, via Escobar on Sinodefence Forum

    The system will also likely have new, jam-proof chips. Allystar Technology has unveiled a computer chip for use in Beidou receivers, providing instant accuracy without the aid of augmentation by ground control stations. This computer chip's ability to enhance satellite navigation signals could enable military Beidou users to withstand enemy attempts to jam satellite navigation.

    The Beidou 3 satellite navigation service is expected to be available only to Chinese military and national security users for the foreseeable future. The updates could be particularly useful for Chinese unmanned systems (like small quadcopter drones) as well as long-range cruise missiles.
     
  15. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    北斗3 is so accurate that it fix position to tell you which piece of floor tile you are standing on! Literally.
    [​IMG]

    The most accurate mode is 主动有源定位, meaning your hand-held device must also transmit towards 北斗3 satellite.
    The normal 被动无源定位 is less accurate, but alike US GPS, 北斗2, Russian Glonas, & others, it require only your hand-held device to receive signals from satellites.

    This means, to enjoy high accuracy, the system must KNOW YOU.

    The biggest difference of Chinese 北斗 it is a 2 way system capable of own kind of global SMS, and Chinese fishing boats are using them very widely and cheaply. They are of course spying and reporting intelligence to PLA, like discovery of suspected US ships or weather situation or anything unusual in the oceans.
     
  16. pakchewcheng

    pakchewcheng Alfrescian Old Timer

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    With CEP of 1 meter, you do not need nukes. Nukes very dangerous when others also have nukes and not good to go to press red buttons.

    With CEP of 1 meter, do not even need KABOOM! At Mach 10 to 11, the kinetic energy alone can wipe out target. After all, the APFSD muzzle velocity is a bare Mach 4.5 and can take out MBTs.

    If cruise missile, then a warhead carrying a big KABOOM with CEP of 0.1 meter or even 5 meters, will take out whatever the fuck to be taken out without nukes.
    When nukes do fly, the next war , if any, will be fought with sticks and stones.
     
  17. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2017/11-08/8371001.shtml

    解码北斗三号:和前两代卫星相比,它有何不同?
    2017年11月08日 05:08 来源:北京日报 [​IMG]参与互动 

    视频:首批北斗三号组网卫星成功发射 来源:央视新闻

      解码北斗三号

      柯谱

      新闻背景

      11月5日,我国第三代导航卫星——北斗三号的首批组网卫星(2颗)以“一箭双星”的发射方式顺利升空,它标志着我国正式开始建造“北斗”全球卫星导航系统。那么,北斗三号与前两代“北斗”导航卫星,即北斗一号、北斗二号有什么不同?它都采用了哪些新技术?

    [​IMG]
    11月5日,中国在西昌卫星发射中心用长征三号乙运载火箭,以“一箭双星”方式成功发射第24颗、第25颗北斗导航卫星。中新社发 王玉磊 摄
      11月5日,我国第三代导航卫星——北斗三号的首批组网卫星(2颗)以“一箭双星”的发射方式顺利升空,它标志着我国正式开始建造“北斗”全球卫星导航系统。那么,北斗三号与前两代“北斗”导航卫星,即北斗一号、北斗二号有什么不同?它都采用了哪些新技术?

      几种卫星导航系统

      要搞清我国三代“北斗”导航卫星的异同,首先应了解以下几种卫星导航系统,看看北斗一号、二号和三号分别是属于哪一种。

      至今,卫星导航技术已先后发展了两大类:一类卫星导航系统是采用多普勒测速原理,即利用测量导航信号的多普勒频移来求出距离变化率进行导航定位,但由于这种方式存在不能连续实时导航等一些缺点,所以采用这种原理的卫星导航现已基本没有了。另一类卫星导航系统采用时间测距原理,即利用测量导航信号传播时间来求出距离进行导航定位,目前大多数卫星导航系统都采用这种方式,包括三代“北斗”导航卫星,但即使这样,它们仍各不相同。

      因为卫星导航系统又可分有源(主动式)和无源(被动式)两种。我国北斗一号卫星导航系统采用有源方式,即用户进行导航定位时要主动向卫星发送信号,北斗二号和北斗三号卫星导航系统采用无源和有源相结合的方式,进行无源卫星导航时,用户只需接收导航卫星信号。美国的“全球定位系统”、俄罗斯的“格洛纳斯”、欧洲的“伽利略”等卫星导航系统都采用无源方式。

      根据导航卫星的信号覆盖范围,卫星导航系统还可分为区域性卫星导航系统和全球性卫星导航系统,我国的北斗一号、二号卫星导航系统以及日本、印度的卫星导航系统等属于前者,美国、俄罗斯、欧洲和我国的北斗三号卫星导航系统属于后者。

      另外,导航卫星还可根据卫星的轨道高度,分成近地轨道、地球中圆轨道、倾斜地球同步轨道和地球静止轨道导航卫星几种。我国北斗一号为地球静止轨道导航卫星,而北斗二号和三号导航星座都由地球中圆轨道导航卫星、倾斜地球同步轨道导航卫星和地球静止轨道导航卫星组成。目前,美国、俄罗斯和欧洲的导航卫星都运行在地球中圆轨道,印度和日本的导航卫星星座均由倾斜地球同步轨道导航卫星和地球静止轨道导航卫星组成。

      有其他卫星导航系统不具备的性能

      目前,卫星导航已成为当今社会重要的空间信息基础设施,其应用只受想象力的限制,具有广泛的社会、经济、科技和国防意义。因此,我国很重视卫星导航系统的建设,并分三个阶段实施发射,即先建造有源区域卫星导航系统,再建造无源与有源相结合的区域卫星导航系统,最终建造无源与有源相结合的全球卫星导航系统。

      2000年10月至12月为第一阶段。我国先后发射了4颗北斗一号导航卫星(后两颗为备份),它们运行在经度相距60°的地球静止轨道,从而建成了世界首个有源区域卫星导航系统。该系统不仅可提供区域导航定位,还能进行双向数字报文通信和精密授时,特别适用于需要导航与移动数据通信相结合的用户。其服务范围为国内;定位精度为20米;授时精度为100纳秒;短信字数每次为120个字。

      2007年至2012年为第二阶段。我国陆续发射了16颗北斗二号导航卫星,最终建成了由14颗北斗二号(5颗静止轨道导航卫星+5颗倾斜地球同步轨道导航卫星+4颗中圆地球轨道导航卫星)组成的、采用无源与有源卫星导航方式相结合的区域卫星导航系统。如果说GPS只能告诉用户什么时间、在什么地方,“北斗”还可以将用户的位置信息发送出去,让其他人可以知道用户的情况,较好地解决了何人、何事、何地的问题。其服务范围为亚太地区;定位精度为10米;测速精度为0.2米/秒;授时精度为50纳秒;短信字数每次为120个字。

      2017年至2020年为第三阶段,我国将先后发射35颗北斗三号导航卫星(5颗静止轨道卫星+3颗倾斜地球同步轨道卫星+27颗中圆轨道卫星),建成采用无源与有源导航方式相结合的全球卫星导航系统。其服务范围为全球;定位精度为2.5至5米;测速精度为0.2米/秒;授时精度为20纳秒;每次短信字数也增加了。它将为民用用户免费提供约10米精度的定位服务、0.2米/秒的测速服务,并且将为付费用户提供更高精度等级的服务。随着“北斗”地基增强系统提供初始服务,它还可提供米级、亚米级、分米级,甚至厘米级的服务,届时,“北斗”的定位精度将与美国GPS相媲美。

      建成后的北斗全球导航系统将为民用用户免费提供约10米精度的定位服务。

      具有高精度、高可靠、高保险、多功能的“北斗”全球卫星导航系统有一些美国、俄罗斯和欧洲全球卫星导航系统不具备的性能和特点,例如,其空间段采用三种轨道卫星组成的混合星座,且与其他卫星导航系统相比高轨卫星更多,因此抗遮挡能力强,尤其在低纬度地区性能特点更为明显;北斗三号可提供多个频点的导航信号,能够通过多频信号组合使用等方式提高服务精度;该卫星系统创新融合了导航与通信能力,具有实时导航、快速定位、精确授时、位置报告和短报文通信服务五大功能。

      北斗三号亮点多多

      由于北斗三号导航卫星需采用许多新技术,为此,我国在2015年至2016年陆续发射了5颗北斗三号试验卫星,验证了以高精度星载原子钟、星座自主运行等为代表的卫星载荷关键技术,以轻量化、长寿命、高可靠为典型特征的卫星平台关键技术,基于星地链路、星间链路、全新导航信号体制的导航卫星运行控制关键技术,以及98%的国产化器件,关键器件均为“中国造”。

      从2017年11月5日发射首批北斗三号(2颗)地球中圆轨道导航卫星起,我国正式开始建造“北斗”全球卫星导航系统。与北斗二号相比,除了服务区域由区域覆盖扩大到全球覆盖外,北斗三号在精度和可靠性上都有很大的提高。其单星设计寿命由以前的8年提高到10至12年,并首次提出“保证服务不间断”指标。

      另外,还有以下重大技术创新或改进。北斗三号中圆地球轨道卫星采用了新型的导航卫星专用平台,它具有功率密度大、载荷承载比重高、设备产品布局灵活、功能拓展适应能力强等技术特点,可为系统后续功能和需求拓展提供更大的适应能力,将实现卫星导航系统的定位、授时和导航的服务业务,兼容天基数据传输、新业务载荷的在轨应用,能作为天基数据传输网络的广播节点。作为世界上唯一的由3种轨道卫星构成的导航系统,北斗三号未来还将按照国际标准增加全球搜救、全球位置报告、星基增强等拓展服务。

      北斗三号地球静止轨道卫星与倾斜地球同步轨道卫星采用大型卫星平台,它能集成多种载荷,兼容实现天基增强、可动点波束功率增强、短报文通信与位置报告等系统;成为天基数据传输网络的中心节点。

      北斗三号卫星星座首次配备了相控阵星间链路(在卫星之间搭建的通信测量链路),解决了境外监测卫星的难题,成为一大特色。这样能实现对运行在境外的卫星进行监测、注入功能,并可实现卫星之间的双向精密测距和通信,从而能够进行多星测量,自主计算并修正卫星的轨道位置和时钟系统,大大减少对地面站的依赖,提高整个系统的定位和服务精度。星间链路是“北斗”实现自主导航的关键,不仅实现了北斗卫星相互间的通信和数据传输,还能相互测距,自动“保持队形”,减轻地面管理维护压力。所谓自主导航,就是指即使地面站全部失效,30多颗“北斗”导航卫星也能通过星间链路提供精准定位和授时,地面用户通过手机等终端接收导航卫星的信号,仍旧能进行定位及导航。

      众所周知,导航卫星上的原子钟性能对整个卫星导航系统的性能有重要影响。北斗三号卫星采用我国新型高精度铷原子钟和氢原子钟。与北斗二号卫星采用的原子钟相比,北斗三号上的原子钟在产品体积、重量方面大幅降低,每天的频率稳定度提高了10倍,综合指标达到国际领先水平。其上的氢原子钟精度将比北斗二号的星载铷原子钟提高一个数量级。铷原子钟天稳定度为每1万秒误差10-14秒量级,氢原子钟天稳定度为每1万秒误差10-15秒量级。原子钟技术的进步,直接推动了“北斗”系统的定位精度由10米量级向米级跨越,测速和授时精度同步提高一个量级。

      北斗三号进一步提升了连续性、稳定性和可用性的指标,采用多项新技术提高了卫星的抗干扰能力,非计划中断指标为每年0.4次,达到国际先进水平。它采用了多重可靠性“加固”措施,可最大限度增强系统的保险系数。比如,系统建成后运行卫星数量大于服务必需卫星数,即卫星有备份;配备了多台铷原子钟,形成“双保险”一起提供服务;还采用了软件冗余、故障自我诊断和故障自我修复等多项措施,可保证系统可靠性。

      该卫星还在世界上首次实现了卫星的在轨自主完好性监测功能,这一功能对民航、自动驾驶等生命安全领域用户来说,具有极强的实用价值。它将增加性能更优的互操作信号,即与世界其他卫星导航系统兼容性更好的信号B1C和B2a信号。其全新的导航信号体制和强大的在轨重构功能,也将极大地提升用户体验,因为通过兼容互操作技术,可为用户能在终端上接收多个信号奠定基础,给用户提供多种选择方案。

      根据计划,2018年前后完成18颗北斗三号卫星发射,届时将面向“一带一路”国家和地区提供基本服务。到2020年前后,北斗三号系统面向全球提供全天候、全天时为各类用户提供高精度、高可靠的定位、导航、授时服务。“北斗”发展蓝图是构建国家综合定位、导航和授时体系建设,以“北斗”系统为核心,建成天地一体(包括太空、地面、水下、室内)、覆盖无缝、安全可信、高效便捷的国家综合定位、导航和授时体系。

      延伸阅读

      北斗卫星是怎么导航定位的

      我国第一代导航卫星北斗一号与第二代导航卫星北斗二号以及第三代导航卫星北斗三号在工作原理上有明显不同之处。

      北斗一号卫星导航系统是通过采用卫星无线电测定业务方式来确定用户的位置。在平时,地面中心站经2颗北斗一号地球静止轨道卫星不断向用户询问是否需要定位的信号,而用户终端一般只处于光收听不发信息的状态。当需要定位时,用户终端分别经2颗北斗一号地球静止轨道卫星向中心站发送需要定位的申请信号。这时,地面中心站通过测量信号的往返时间来算出用户终端分别到每颗卫星的距离。由于卫星的位置是已知的,所以可以用这2个距离测量数据进一步推算出用户位置。最后,地面中心站将该定位信号经1颗卫星传给用户终端。

      采用这种方式的优点所需卫星少,只要2颗卫星就行;具有导航定位、发短报文和精密授时等多种功能。但其定位精度不高,系统用户容量有限。

      北斗二号和北斗三号卫星导航系统在国际首次实现了采用卫星无线电测定业务和卫星无线电导航业务相结合的集成体制方式来为用户导航定位。所谓卫星无线电导航业务,就是用户被动测量来自至少4颗在卫星时钟控制下的导航卫星连续发送的无线电导航信号,并根据这些卫星信号的不同传输时间,来测定用户到这些卫星的不同距离,然后通过用户终端的数学运算得到用户的三维坐标与速度。



    【编辑:于晓】
     
  18. pakchewcheng

    pakchewcheng Alfrescian Old Timer

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    Accuracy of 1 meter to tell which tile you on is Beitou 2.

    Beitou 3 will know your right ball from the left ball, maybe down to which hair on the fucking ball.
     
  19. war is best form of peace

    war is best form of peace Alfrescian Old Timer

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    I picked the photo with a standard 1 foot square tile.

    This is what the Chinese illustration video I saw showed.

    I don't want the position of balls, may be the position of good CB hole will be useful. If 北斗3 was a few cm inaccurate, I don't mind to wrongly poke the anus too.
     
  20. pakchewcheng

    pakchewcheng Alfrescian Old Timer

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    With Beitou 3, you can tell not only the cheebye.
    You can tell where the clitoris is and the left labia minora from the right labia minora.
    And if you the kind to like backside hole, can even center your entry point.

    And do that root canal job on the USA Admiral as well
     

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